Introduction

    Tourie-Enji(ֺ 1721-1792) is one of the greatest disciples under Hakuin-Ekaku (1685-1768), a restorer of Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism in Tokugawa era. He was especially respected among Hakuins disciples as Delicate Tourei(ڰᬪֺ misai-no-Tourei) for his carefulness in his Koan study( Kouan-kuhuu). Maybe it is because of Toureis inborn intelligence.

    According to the Toureis biography, upon arriving at Shouin-ji for the first time, great master Hakuin asked Tourei to help his preparation for the discourse upon Kidouroku(, Record of Hsu-tang chih-yu 1185-1269) for coming new semester, since Hakuin knew that Tourei had already learned almost all of Patriarchal records such as personal history, life episode, dialogue and so on, by heart at his age of twenty-three.

    Five years later, twenty-eight years old, Toreis weak body got a heavy disease from too much private meditation at some laymans house in Kyoto. He came to know that his life is comming to an end within three to five years, so he wrote down two volumes of manuscript entitled The Theory of Unestinguished Lamp of Zen Buddhism(ڦ Shuumon-mujintou-ron: for short, TULZ is used in this paper) taking only thirty days. Recovering from disease, Tourei intended to burn up his manuscript, but Hakuin who thought this would be a kind enough guidance for Zen student under Koan Zen study put a stop it.

    TULZ was published in 1800 that is eight years after Toureis death, though Tourei himself had prohibited his disciples to open his manuscript to the public. It is our good fortune, however, to have this kind of rare systematic text book of Koan study published by his lay disciple after Toreis passing away, so that Hakuins creative method of Koan Zen study is still at hand today in its original form, so that unestinguished lamp of Zen tradition is still living even in our days.

    TULZ is not an ordinary record of Patriarchal teaching done from the standpoint of the truth of the first principle[ or daiichigitai in Jp.] like other texts, but the text described by Toureis own hand for future use. Therefore it is written from standpoint of the truth of second principle[ or dainigital in Jp.]. He arranges various kinds of Patriarchal episodes along with the procedure of Zen study from the entrance to the final attainment of Reality, so that Rinzai Zen students might be able to go along same path as the Patriarchs took for their deepening of Zen mind.

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    1. Historical Root of Hakuin Zen Tradition

    The first chapter of TULZ is entitled Root of Zen Transmission( shuuyuu in Jp.) in which Tourei describes general history that is a transmission tree of Rinzai Zen tradition starting with Buddha and end up with his own master hakuin-ekaku.

    Like other religions, Rinzai Zen takes importance upon its traditional history as well as its teaching. Or it might be better to say that history of Zen transmission itself is nothing but the essence of Zen Buddhism. Because Zen transmission has been only achieved through the indirect transmission of existential essence of Zen from master to his disciples, as existential philosopher Soren Kierkegaard ever pointed out by saying that the direct transmission is impossible in the case of transmission of the Truth. Therefore the discontinued continuity is only the form of transmission of the Buddhas Lamp. This means that there is no so-called continual history in Zen tradition but the series of each personal experience.

    When Tourei entitles the first chapter The Reason of Zen tradition(or shuyu in Jp.), Reason here means the historical base on which Zen Buddhism stands. Though this chapter is the historical description of Rinzai Zen transmission, it is still not a mere history of Rinzai Zen, but a ground on which Rinzai Zen is surely based. In fact, Toureis way of description is not historical but simple arrangement of episodes in the life of Patriarchs. In this specific reason, a history of Rinzai Zen tradition is what is beyond the history itself

    The specific reason why historical description could still be super-historical is because it is not a simple document of the Patriarchs, but the records of particular situations in which each Patriarch came to realization of Reality, and therefore they are called Ancient Samples and Episodes ͯ that is so-called Koan(). Each Kouan(episode) is what has happened once in history and yet it happened as a full manifestation of Reality in each case. Therefore, Shuyu( or Root of tradition) does not mean mere origin of Rinzai Zen history, but the Root where the essence of Zen is manifested through the individual experience.

    Therefore, what Tourei tries to describe in the first Chapter is not a simple introduction of this text, but the presentation of the essence of this text in which all other following chapters are also based upon.

    In the very beginning of this chapter, Tourei admires Buddhas declaration of the nobility of his individual existence right after his birth as follows;

    Stop talking! Your saying already betrays this Matter too much. Master Yun-men Wan-yen ever criticized you saying; If I were there with you at that moment, I would club him and give it to dog to eat. I wish you kept this world in peace. (Eshin Nishimura Text published from The Institute for Zen Studies, 1992, page24)

    In this way, Tourei demonstrates his admiration of Buddghas birth in the negative way of saying to stress the significance of Buddhas coming into this world. All these way of saying shows Toureis subjective standpoint, which is free from the tradition within the definite framework of Zen tradition. Here we may see the unique attitude of Rinzai Zen Buddhist monk to go beyond their own tradition for the purpose of going down to deep horizon where they can really meet with all patriarchs of history.

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    2. Self-confidence and its Practice

    Second chapter of TULZ is entitled the self-confidence and its practice [ sinshu in Jp.] where Tourei discusses the inevitable preparation for Zen student intending to begin Koan Zen study.

    Here I dare to translate this particular Chinese term not belief of faith as ordinarily done, because in Zen study the term (sin) does not mean so-called religious act done toward some outer Being beyond man, but somehow means self-confidence for the Reality which is hopefully realized at the end of his way of Koan Zen study course. Torei writes as follows;

    If a man wishes to achieve his path of Zen, in the very beginning, he has to have great root of self-confidence( Dai-shin-kon). Then what is this confidence?
    A confidence about the existence of the same inborn nature and infinite Wisdom as all Buddhas ever had. A confidence of the fact that there is neither big nor small in each individuals religious ability( kon, root), neither wise nor fool in each individual daily religious capacity( ki), so that all those who go this way should achieve the goal without exception. A confidence that along with the deepening procedure of meditation, there easily happens various kinds of evil delusions, and if a man took it as the ideal sate of the way(Satori), he would suddenly fall down to the second or non-Buddhist level of the goal. A confidence that when time has come and mans effort has fully devoted, Buddha-nature is revealed by itself, so that man does not need to use his intellectual judgement anymore. A confidence that no matter how buddha-nature is suddenly revealed, unless a man has a chance to see a Zen master to pass the Gates set by ancient Patriarchs, he would walk through the wrong way of life. A confidence that there is still one more small step(߾ sasi-koujyouno-ichijyakusu) remains even after you finish passing through all those patriarchal gates. A confidence that no matter how man attains this special step, there is deep delicacy in the daily activity following each individual different personality. A confidence that a matter of Zen transmission has most important significance so that man should transmit the lamp to the disciples and not monopolize it for himself. A confidence that each part of daily life is nothing but retraining of his Dharma, and carry on that daily training with him so that Dharma might not be extinguished in the future.(Nishimuras Text, page41)

In this way, Tourei encourages us to have confidence as a fundamental condition of whole series of Zen study, therefore this second Chapter is not a part of TULZ anymore, but covers whole system of the text. Here we may see the characteristic of this text, which should be called unsystematic system of Koan Zen study. And this kind of structure can be seen in each Chapter of TULZ.

    In this second Chapter Tourei put stress also upon the importance of Vows of Bodhisattva(߱ bosatu-no-seigan) as the fundamental condition for the beginner of Zen study. Needless to say, Vows of Boddhisattva is most indispensable to Zen study as Mahayana Buddhist practice, otherwise Zen study comes to be merely the self-centered. He writes as follows;

    After the above confidence firmly settled, student must make Vows to himself not to abandon his study until he finally arrives at the achievement of his study.
    Not to have any idle mind from his study, no matter how long his journey of suffering would continue.
    Not to be controlled by other Buddhist teaching even though he might fall into hell because of his deed. Not to fall into non-Buddhist view by being satisfied with easy realization of Satori experience which is mere evil state of delusion.
    To practice Bodhisattva deed after once he achieved his study, and so on.   (Nishimuras Text, page42)

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    3. Evil state of illusion

    In this chapter, Tourei talks about the danger of the evil state, which appears along with the way of koan study. This dangerous state of mind called Genkyou( or literally translated the appearing state) is already taught as devil state(ت or makyon in Jp.) in the Buddhist canons or texts such as the 40th Chapter. of Part one of Maha-prajna-sutra(), the 10th volume of Surangama-stura() and the 8th volume of Mo-ho-chih-kuan(ؤʸκ)

    Among various kinds of evil state of mind, Tourei calls our attention more to the good state(ͣ) or zenkyoukai in Jp.) than the evil, because man can easily guard himself from the unpleasant condition of his feeling, while he enjoys himself whenever he feels to be comfortable with the good feeling even though it is nothing but the illusion. Therefore, pleasant illusion which Zazen meditation brings into man is thought to be very dangerous.

    Some examples of good state of mind are taken out by Tourei himself such as the view that the existing beings are all empty(̸), view that everything is equal(ګ̸), view that the Reality is being manifested throughout the universe(̸), view that this body is perfect by itself(̸), and so on. All these states of view are only possible through deep meditation practice, therefore we should say this is the disturbance, or the necessary evil, which is happen on the way to the real goal of Zen way.

    Medieval Japanese Zen Master Musou-soseki( 1275-1351) is also talking about Madou(تԳ or Evil-path) in his Text Muchuu-mondou ( or A Dialogue in Dream) as follows;

    There are two kinds of Evil that are inner evil and outer evil. Outer evil means the Evil king(ت or Maou) and his people(ت) who are coming from outside the Buddhist student and disturb him. The Evil king is called ت(ت or Tenma) since he is staying in the sixth Heaven() and so-called Ϸ(Tengu or long-nosed goblin) are his people. That Evil king thinks all sentient being as his relatives, therefore he intends to disturb the sentient being who makes effort to enter the Buddhas way..... Even if there were no such disturbance from outside, in such a case as Buddhist student has delusion in his mind, or has attachment with incorrect view, or has self-pride of his achieved state, or sinks into meditation, or is proud of wisdom, or hopes to be released from suffering only for himself in the idea of his Arahat, or falls to the second level of compassion to the other(̸), and so on. All these belong to the inner evil since they are all disturbances for the ultimate Bodhi(or ߾ or Mujyou-bodai in Jp.). (Nishimuras translation and comment of Muchuu-mondou published NHK Press, 1998, page29)

    All these inner and outer evils are what might usually happen also in the process of Christian mysticism as is called The dark night of the soul by Mystics. Zen students also have to go once through this dangerous state.

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    4. Definite awareness of the Reality

    An anthentic evidence (or jisshou in Jp.) of existence of Reality realized as a whole bodily experience is needless to say a core of whole procedure of koan Zen Practice, and that would happen when hard discipline under the Koan study reaches climax. A well-known phrase: A great awareness(or taigo in Jp.) is only possible amid great darkness or mass of doubt(or taigi in Jp.) is a principle of Koan study Zen(or Kanna Zen) demonstrated by Ta-hui Tuang-kao ( 1089-1163) in Sung dynasty China, and Japanese Koan Zen which was re-systematized by Hakuin-ekaku is direct descendant of this tradition.

    In particular, Tourei is putting emphasis upon the necessity of visit with an authentic Zen master(٥ meisi or shousi in Jp.) whenever a student arrives at this experience of Self-realization, otherwise he will fall into the tremendously dangerous cave of self satisfaction. Tourei writes as follows;

    Upon attaining a realization of Self Nature(̸ kenshou in Jp.), Zen student has to visit an authentic master in order to remove the delusion of self-awareness(ڻ gochuu-no-mei). In old day, Huang-lung Szu-hsin(ף
    1043-1114) told that when you meet one delusion, you mast gain one awareness. After you attain an awareness, you have to be aware of both delusion in awareness(ڻ gochuu-no-mei) and awareness in delusion(ڻ meichuu-no-go). Therefore you should know that the time to visit an authentic master or the time to start to study in more authentic way. (Nishimuras Text, page67)

    Reading above quotation, we might know that even though the self-realization of Reality which is known as Satori() in Japanese seems to be a core of Koan Zen practice, it is merely one stage which happens half way of the whole process of Rinzai Zen study where the more important Zen study really begins.

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    5. Passing through the Patriarchal gates

    This Chapter called Toukan(μ) is so to speak the checking upon the attained state of awareness( Satori in Jp.) by reflection on the mirror of Buddhas or Patriarchal paradigm. As well-known among people today, to deepen ones awareness of Reality through following the foot prints which Buddha or Patriarchs have ever marked is called Kouan Zen practice() and this is no other than the proper method which Rinzai Zen tradition started from Sung dynasty China and still practices today in Japanese Rinzai Zen.

    In fact, Japanese Rinzai Zen has been able to maintain its traditional Lamp of Dharma only because of this somehow artificial looking method which was systematized by Hakuin-ekaku who was so much worried about declining of Japanese Rinzai Zen as he violently criticized Bankei-youkakus unique Unborn Zen(Ш Hushou Zen), Ungo-kuyous Meditating on Buddha Zen ( Nembutu Zen) or Eihei-Dougens Meditation-only Zen(Գꪪη Sikan-taza) calling them a modern blind priest living in nothingness only(Ө Kindai danmu no kassou) or the evil party of silent meditation(Ϊ Mokushou no jyatou) and so on.

    Tourei writes in this Chapter as follows;

    Today, we easily see Zen brothers who misunderstand Zen as the Wisdom which transcends the rational understanding( motuichi), and assert that since Zen Buddhism has been transmitted outside scriptures, it does not need to use any Buddhist scripture. Those people do not realize that if Zen were transmission outside Scripture, it should also accept inside. If outside Scripture could not accept inside Scripture, that Outside would also not be true. Why is it so? Because when a mirror is bright enough, it reflects any object whatever it might be. So in the case when object does not appear in the mirror, it means that mirror is not bright. Nonetheless, you sometime refuse the object to hide the darkness of the mirror. This is never the view of great path of Buddhism. In the same way, in the Scripture, there is contained deep teaching of Buddha or Patriarchs, which often points at the disturbance of your path of Zen study. But only because your awareness of Reality is not yet clear, you ignore the Golden words of Buddha and are unable to research the deepest meaning of Scripture. What I mean here is not take Scriptures as the main object of study, but take them as bright mirror. It is important to reflect Self-nature upon the Teaching of Buddha and Patriarchs and also to reflect the Teaching upon the Self-nature. In so doing, both Self-nature and Teaching should be most clear. (Nishimuras Text, page81)

    The attitude of Zen student toward Koan should be same as Tourei talks about Buddhist scripture as above quoted. This particular Chapter of TULZ commands us to reflect the state of awareness of Self-nature (Reality) upon the Koan so that Self-nature is examined if it is clear enough. But as Tourei writes to study Koan is not the final purpose of Zen study but to reflect the Koan upon the Self-nature to examine if Self-nature is clear enough.

    For the purpose of bringing student to the ultimate attainment of self realization of Reality(), Hakuin systematized traditional paradigmatic episodes(ͯ) into the more effective order(ͧ). Koan system itself is, however not opened in any document form, but secretly transmitted through Nissitu-sanzen() or private interview of student with Roshi() in small room of the monastery. And contents of so-called seventeen hundred Koans(Ϊ) are told to be different each other according to the two main branches, that is to say Inzan-branch(ߣͧ) and Takujyu-branch(ͧ), that were separated under Gasan-jitou(ߣԡ 1727-1797) who is the one of Hakuins Greatest disciple.

    However, both branches are at least keeping the fundamental Koan system which Hakuin set for his students. Or it would be better to say that Hakuin confirmed Koan system which had already been developed by the Japanese Rinzai Zen patriarchs in early days of Japanese Zen such as Enni-bennen(ܩ 1202-1280) or Nampo-jyoumain(٥ 1235-1308). These Patriarchs divided Chinese Koans into three groups according to their function, namely Richi( or Ultimate of Truth), Kikan(Ѧμ or Skillful Method) and koujyon(߾ or Non-attachment).

    Richi is the group of words, which show the True Reality and most of them are extracted from Buddhist scripture and Patriarchal record. All Koan of Richi are the theoretical expression of Buddhist theology or State of Zen mind, so students practice Zazen meditation() reflecting his mind upon the Koan so that he will realize authentic meaning of each phrase through his bodily experience of awareness(Satori or Kenshou ̸ in Jp.)

    Kikan is the group of the episodes by which student knows how the Patriarchs of early days of China came to self realization of Reality, and by refelcting upon those stories through Practice of Zazen meditation, he might attain the living mind of the Patriarch or Kassoi() which is called Satori.

    Koujyou is the group of Koan through which student wipes the dust which he get by above two groups koan. In other words, student has to remove so called the attachment of Buddha-view(Bukken ̸ in Jp.) or Dharma-view (Hokken ̸) or his Pride of Ultimate attainment of Reality so that he might return to what Buddha or Patriarchs really taught which is nothing but original Ordinariness(Heijyoutei ).

    Hakuin opened these three divisions into the five, that is to say Hossin( or dharma-kaya), Kikan(Ѧμ or Skill), Gonsen( or Word expression), Nantou( or difficult to pass through) and Koujyou(߾ or Non-attachment).

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    6. Non-attachment to the ultimate

    As I already mentioned above, the qualitatively different path still remained for the student as a final part of his Zen study jhourney and it is called Kojyon(߾). A well-known phrase: This particular path of Koujyou has never been transmitted by any past Saint (߾, ). This path is specially called Smallness of Koujyou(߾) which means that this path is the entirely different from the preceding path where student has passed, or it would be better to be said that this path is the total negation of what has been experienced before. Therefore student should not continue his quantitative progress of path walked but jump into the entirely different realm of quality. Chinese Patriarchs teach this jump by saying: Have one more step at the top of hundred feet pole! Here Tourei writes as follows;

    Here is a path of non-attachment. This is called the One which even patriarchs never transmitted before. ..... This is what all Patriarchs ever transmitted from one to the other. (Nishimuras Text, page92)

    What Tourei mentions here seems to be somehow paradoxical, but this is the essence of Zen transmission. However, as a matter of fact, such Self realization of Reality is never able to be transmitted from man to man directly but only transmitted through indirectly transmitted as an existential philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard ever pointed out. Therefore, we may realize that Koan system itself is not the object of study as it is mere foot-prints of Patriarchs and not the Reality of Patriarch himself. Student should not follow such a shadow of the Reality. Instead, he should jump out of traditional transmission after all. This might be the deep significance of the small path of non-attachment.

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    7. How to live the ordinary life

    Next chapter of TULZ is entitled Rikiyuu( or daily Use) in which Torei talks about the way of living daily life for the student who achieved his Zen study. A student who came to be free from tradition and returned to his own self has to live his daily life authentically(٥ risen-hunmyou in Jp.) His ordinary daily life has to be the continuity of Right meditation(ҷ Shounen-souzoku in Jp.).

    As Bodhi-Dharma says, There are many who attain the Buddhas Way, but very few who are practicing it. And, moreover, this practice should have no traces( Mosshouseki in Jp.). Torei calls this kind of daily use Wisdom-use beyond scale(̫ kakugai no chiyuu) because nobody knows his Saint-ness.

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    8. Succession of Buddha-Dharma

    In this Chapter of Succession, Tourei discusses the Importance of Succession of Buddhas Lamp. Succession ( Shijyou in Jp.) means to succeed to the Wisdom-life of Buddha(֪٤ Butu-no-emyou in Jp.) from certain Zen master who is supposed to be a carrier of Zen Buddhist tradition. For this very reason, student who lives his life in the daily use of attained Reality has to go out of his home for searching authentic Zen master. If student kept staying within his enjoyment of Awareness of Reality, he would remain inside of the mere self-satisfaction. Such a self-satisfaction is called the Heresy of Selfish awareness without Master(ԼԳ musidokugo-no-gedou in Jp.). Tourei writes upon this danger as follows;

    A matter of Succession is the most central. Ancient Zen student who arrives at the source of Self-awareness and passes a certain numbers of Patriarchal gates, used to travel throughout the country without any doubt about Reality and have a discussion or fix to the prices of commodities after discussion( Mondou-shouryou in Jp.) with any person he meet. But sometime later on, he happened to meet Great Zen master who has Great eyes of Dharma( daiganmoku in Jp.), and was compelled to realize the essence of Zen existing in completely different realm that is called Non-attachment, from the Reality he had held until that time. Then he quits his travelling and begins his sincere study under the Great master. In this way, he arrives at Unmovable confidence of his reality. This is the time of Succession(). Since that time, he lives with unforgettable thanks to the master about the kindness he received. Such a student should be called Dharma-successor( Hassu in Jp.). the Patriarchs of Zen tradition all the same have transmitted Fruit of Zen in this way. (Nishmuras Text, page 119)

    From above quotation, we may know that the horizon where succession of Patriarchal lamp become possible is even under the bottom of egoistic self where individual personality is broken into the universal Non-self which is common with masters Non-self. This is what Wu-men Hui-kai(ڦ 1183-1150) writes in his We-men-kuan (ڦ Mumonkan in Jp.) like To walk hand in hand with the traditional Patriarchs, and to see the things with same eyes of Patriarchs and to listen with same ears.

    In other word, Succession is not possible so far as the master and the student stand in opposition to each other, but only possible when student comes down to the transcendentally deep level where he may touch directly with transcendental Non-self of the Master. As we already studied in the above Chapter, this transcendence is only possible with one important step beyond the ultimate self realization of the Reality which was called Koujyou or Non-attachment. However to arrive at such complete level of Non-attachment is so hard that even Wu-tsu Fa-yen( ?-1104) says; I have studied Zen for twenty years, and now I feel the shame to know my incompleteness(߳Ҵ, ۰).

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    9. Breeding of the Seed of Buddha

    In this chapter entitled Chouyon ס or Breeding of the seed of Buddha, Torei talks about importance of cultivation of Buddha-seed which student sowed deep in his body through his long Zen meditation. He writes as follows;

    Yuan-wu Ko-chin(ȯк 1063-1135) says; Ancient Masters used to live their lives in the humble hermitage or stone cave and take poor meals prepared in broken pans, after he attained Buddha-way(Գ). They never hoped to be known in the world and occasionally spew a word to switchover students mind to transmit Buddhas Dharma. Therefore, what Zen student has to do is only to
    breed the Buddha-seed through many years. Do not like to build a monastery for the purpose of accepting more students. (Nishimuras Text, page127)

    Torei is then taking a number of examples of ancient Patriarchs who hid themselves in the deep mountain or amid the secular world for many years such as the six Patriarch Hui-nung(638-713)s fifteen years in the South countryside, Nan-yang Hui-chung( ?-775)s forty years, Ta-mei Fa-chang( 752-839)s thirty years, and so on.

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    10. Currency

    The final Chapter of TULZ is the conclusion or the End of long Path of Zen study. Or we should say that it was the ultimate purpose to begin study of Zen when a student was standing at the gate of Zen Path. Since Zen Buddhism is based upon the Mahayana Buddhist thought, no matter how this particular branch is hoping to realize a Reality in his own-self and therefore it might be called the religious way of Self-inquiry(ϼ٥Գ) lasting throughout a whole life, it should be done for the salvation of all sentient Beings. Here the title of this Chapter Currency ( Ruzuu in Jp.) means the spread of the Buddha Dharma all over this earth.

    However Currency of Buddha Dharma might not be the same as so-called religious Mission or social service done under the name of religion. For Tourei, currency actually means transmission of Unextinguished Lamp of Zen (in fact, this was the title of his work) to only a few students. Torei writes as follows;

    Yen-tou chuan-huo( 828-887) says Whenever you intend to demonstrate Great teaching of Buddha, you have to let it issue from your own heart each by each, so that it fills the whole heaven and earth for the sake of all other beings. I hope that Buddhas Dharma would last forever by the currency that is possible in a way of gaining of an authentic Seed of Dharma. What I worry is the Buddha Dharma is now in danger like the eggs been piled up! I really do not hope that Buddha Dharma extinguish so easily in future. Situation is like the case that the several persons are traveling through the stormy field. And the all lanterns are almost going to be blown out by the storm. However, if there were one person in the party gives his effort only to concentrate his mind upon a lantern not to extinguish, all other people would be saved by that one lantan. (Nishimuras Text, page131)

    As Tourei teaches here in its most impressive example, Currency does not mean to scatter Zen to the masses of world, but maintain the fruit and its seed within deep individual person so that his existence itself could naturally be a shining Lamp for the world of Darkness. This is nothing but what Zen Patriarchs have taught as The Great Compassion of Non-object(ު Muen no daihi) which is entirely different from ordinary Compassion occasionally given to a particular Object(ު Shujyouen no jihi). And Tourei here stresses the importance of this specific sort of Compassion as an Ultimate purpose of Zen study.

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